• Users Online: 62
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Reader Login
Export selected to
Endnote
Reference Manager
Procite
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
  Most popular articles (Since December 28, 2015)

 
 
  Archives   Most popular articles   Most cited articles
 
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to
  Viewed PDF Cited
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Accumulative effect of ankle kinesio taping on postural control in children with hemiparetic cerebral palsy
Zeinab A Hussein, Gehan H El-Meniawy
July-December 2015, 20(2):154-160
DOI:10.4103/1110-6611.174696  
Background and purpose Postural control deficit is one of the primary causes of impairments in hemiparetic cerebral palsy, and ankle strategy is one of the muscle synergies to control posture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accumulative effect of ankle taping on postural control in children with hemiparetic cerebral palsy. Patients and methods A total of 30 children participated in this study, with a mean age of 6.2 ± 0.79 years, mean weight of 25.06 ± 4.43 kg, mean height of 120.6 ± 12.33 cm, and with a degree of spasticity of 1 and 1+ according to the Modified Ashworth Scale. They were divided randomly into two groups: group A and group B. Kinesio taping was applied to the involved ankle joint for children in group B for successive 5 days/week. Rehabilitation exercises were prescribed for children in both groups three times per week for successive 12 weeks. The Biodex system was used to measure dynamic stability indexes. The measurements were carried out before and after the treatment program. Results The post-treatment results revealed a significant decrease in stability indexes in group B after 6 weeks of treatment and a significant decrease in stability indexes between the two groups before and after 12 weeks of treatment program (P < 0.001). Conclusion Ankle taping has an accumulative effect on postural control and it can improve postural control in conjunction with physical rehabilitation for children with hemiparetic cerebral palsy.
  1,557 220 -
Resisted breathing exercise versus incentive spirometer training on vital capacity in postoperative radical cystectomy cases: a pilot randomized controlled trial
Eman M Othman, Shaimaa A Abaas, Hamada H Hassan
July-December 2016, 21(2):61-67
DOI:10.4103/1110-6611.196776  
Background Radical cystectomy at times involves respiratory physical therapy aiming to reverse pulmonary dysfunction, thus avoiding postoperative pulmonary complications that increase hospital morbidity. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resisted breathing exercise versus incentive spirometer (IS) training on vital capacity (VC) outcomes in postoperative radical cystectomy cases. Patients and methods Forty male and female patients between 40 and 80 years of age who had undergone radical cystectomy participated in this study. Patients were randomly assigned into two equal groups of 20 each; both groups received traditional physical approaches. In addition, group A (19 men and 1 woman) received IS training for 15 min daily for 6 weeks, and group B (16 men and 4 women) received resisted breathing exercise for 15 min daily, for 6 weeks. The primary outcome was VC, which was measured using an electronic spirometer. Results This study showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in VC in both groups on comparing pretreatment and post-treatment values within each group. After 6 weeks of treatment, between-group statistical analysis showed equal improvements in VC (P=0.52). Nevertheless, the percentage of improvement in VC was 43.5% (2.46±0.64), higher than that in the resisted breathing exercise group at 23.9% (2.34±0.53). Conclusion IS produced better objective improvement in VC compared with the usage of resistive breathing exercise. However, both are considered as a gold therapeutic tool in the management of pulmonary complication after radical cystectomy.
  604 789 -
Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of Surgimap Spine software for measuring spinal postural angles from digital photographs
Nesma A Helmy, Mohsen M El-Sayyad, Omaima M Kattabei
July-December 2015, 20(2):193-199
DOI:10.4103/1110-6611.174719  
Background and purpose An accurate noninvasive measurement of spinal angles is crucial for detecting postural problems and for assessing therapeutic intervention for students in school. This study was conducted to evaluate the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of Surgimap Spine software for measuring spinal postural angles from digital photos of adolescents in schools. Participants and methods Twenty-two adolescent students of both sexes (10 boys and 12 girls) participated in this reliability study. The researcher took four photographs of each adolescent from different standing views; at intra-rater analysis, one rater analyzed the four photos at three different time, whereas at inter-rater analysis three raters analyzed them once. Reliability was quantified with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), repeated measurement analysis (RMA), and standard of measurement error (SEM). Results Intra-rater reliability of all spinal postural angles [head tilt, shoulder tilt, pelvic tilt from anterior view, scapular tilt, gaze angle, craniovertebral angle, trunk angle, lumbar angle, pelvic tilt from lateral view, and sway angle for right and left sides] showed excellent results, with ICC above 0.9, whereas ICC for pelvic tilt from the posterior view (0.813) was very good. SEM ranged from 0.28 to 1.5° and RMA showed no statistical difference between measurements of the same rater. ICC values for inter-rater reliability of all spinal postural angles ranged from 0.836 to 0.992. SEM ranged from 0.3 to 1.63° and RMA showed no statistical difference in measurements between different raters. Conclusion Surgimap Spine software is a reliable method for measuring spinal postural angles of adolescents from different views in standing position from digital photographs.
  863 454 1
Efficacy of noninvasive respiratory techniques in the treatment of children with bronchial asthma: a randomized controlled trial
Ragab K Elnaggar, Mohammed A Shendy
January-June 2016, 21(1):1-10
DOI:10.4103/1110-6611.188025  
Background and purpose Although the effects of the respiratory techniques are appreciated, it is yet in need to be defined for the treatment of children with bronchial asthma. Thus, this study aimed to compare the effects of the active cycle of breathing technique (ACBT), Buteyko breathing technique (BBT), and thoracic lymphatic pump technique (TLPT) on the total serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E, ventilatory function, and asthma perception in children with bronchial asthma. Materials and methods In a randomized controlled trial, 54 children with bronchial asthma randomly allocated to three equal groups. The groups were then randomly assigned to the following interventions: the ACBT group, the BBT group, or the TLPT group. Total serum IgE, ventilatory function, and perception of asthma were evaluated before treatment and after 3 consecutive months of treatment. Results No significant differences were found between groups at entry (P>0.05). There were nonsignificant differences as regards all outcome measures within the ACBT group (P>0.05) and significant differences within the BBT group and the TLPT group (P<0.05). Significant difference in total serum IgE in favor of the BBT group was recorded when compared with ACBT group (P=0.046) and the TLPT group (P=0.036). Moreover, significant differences in ventilatory function measures favoring the BBT group in comparison with the ACBT group and the BBT group (P<0.05) were recorded. Finally, asthma control was significantly higher in the BBT group than ACBT group (P=0.017) but not BBT group (P=0.081). Conclusion The BBT and TLPT are more advantageous compared with the ACBT in the treatment of children with bronchial asthma, and Buteyko breathing is potentially more valuable.
  869 145 -
Impact of high-intensity interval training on HbA1c in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Hany F Elsisi, Yasser M Aneis, Khaled M Mounir
July-December 2015, 20(2):168-175
DOI:10.4103/1110-6611.174710  
Background Exercises are often recommended for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to improve physical conditioning and glycemic control. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in T2DM on a short-term basis (after 12 weeks of training). Patients and methods Forty patients women diagnosed with T2DM were selected from the outpatient clinic of Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University; their ages ranged from 55 to 65 years. Patients were assigned randomly to two equal groups (n = 20). Group A, the study group, received HIIT and training by treadmill and group B, the control group, received training by treadmill. Exercise training was performed for 20-38 min for group A and for 20-30 min for group B three times a week for 12 weeks. HbA1c was evaluated before training and after 3 months of training (after training). Results There was a statistically significant difference in the two groups in HbA1c, where the mean values for group A before and after treatment were 6.290 ± 0.130 and 5.460 ± 0.092, respectively, and those for group B before and after treatment were 6.405 ± 107 and 6.025 ± 0.156, respectively. Also, there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in HbA1c (P = 0.04), where group A showed greater improvement in HbA1c than group B on a short-term basis. Conclusion Regular participation in HIIT was more effective and an alternative to aerobic training in improving HbA1c in T2DM.
  785 141 -
Balance training versus reciprocal electrical stimulation on knee joint alignment in spastic diplegic cerebral palsy children
Wanees M Badawy, Mohamed B Ibrahim
July-December 2015, 20(2):146-153
DOI:10.4103/1110-6611.174694  
Background and purpose Spastic diplegia is the most common pattern of motor impairment in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) because of a number of deficits, including poor muscle control, weakness, impaired balance, and spasticity, which cause malalignment of the knee joint during standing and walking. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of balance training (BT) versus reciprocal electrical stimulation (RES) of knee extensors and flexors on knee joint alignment in spastic diplegic CP children. Materials and methods Thirty children with spastic diplegic CP of both sexes were selected, ranging in age from 6 to 8 years. Children were divided randomly into two equal groups (I and II). Evaluation was performed before and after 12 weeks of treatment using a digital goniometer to measure range of motion of the knee joint, tape measurement to measure the distance between the buttock and the heel, and gross motor functional measure to provide functional evaluation of standing and walking abilities. Group I received a BT program on the Biodex balance system in addition to a selected physical therapy program. Group II received RES of knee extensors and flexors in addition to the same selected physical therapy program. Results Both BT and RES for 12 weeks in spastic diplegic CP seem to yield a beneficial and statistically significant increase in adjusting knee alignment and improving the functional abilities in standing and walking (P < 0.05). However, BT seems to exert a more beneficially and statistically significant effect than RES. Conclusion BT and RES have a significant effect on improving knee alignment in spastic diplegic CP children.
  784 112 -
Preoperative respiratory physical therapy program as a prehabilitation to improve inspiratory muscle function and quality of life in patients undergoing upper abdominal surgeries: a prospective randomized controlled trial
Heba M Mohamady, Intsar S Waked, Asmaa F Attalla
January-June 2016, 21(1):17-22
DOI:10.4103/1110-6611.188030  
Background Respiratory complications are the most common complications after surgery. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of preoperative respiratory physical therapy program in improving inspiratory muscle function and quality of life (QoL) in patients undergoing upper abdominal surgeries. Patients and methods Forty patients undergoing upper abdominal surgeries were selected from Kasr El-Aini Hospital; their ages ranged from 25 to 45 years. Patients were randomly assigned to the control or the physical therapy group. Only the physical therapy group received the preoperative chest physical therapy program. All treatment interventions were applied at a frequency of 6 days/week for 2 weeks. Outcome measures included maximum inspiratory pressure as a primary outcome measure and QoL scores as a secondary outcome measure. All outcome measures were measured for all patients 2 weeks before surgery, 24h before surgery, and 24h after surgery. Results Level of maximum inspiratory pressure and QoL scores were higher in the physical therapy group compared with the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion It was concluded that preoperative respiratory physical therapy improves inspiratory muscle strength and QoL scores in patients undergoing upper abdominal surgeries.
  716 164 -
Effect of kinesio taping therapy combined with breathing exercises on childbirth duration and labor pain: a randomized controlled trial
Ghada E El-Refaye, Engy M El Nahas, Hassan O Ghareeb
January-June 2016, 21(1):23-31
DOI:10.4103/1110-6611.188026  
Background Labor pain is a common complaint. The method used to reduce maternal discomfort should be efficacious and safe for the mother and the child. Several alternative methods have been reported to reduce childbirth pain. Objective This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of kinesio taping combined with breathing exercises on childbirth duration and labor pain. Participants and methods This study was conducted on 40 normal full-term primigravida women during the first stage of labor with regular painful, palpable uterine contraction, and cervical dilatation between 3 and 5 cm. They were randomly assigned into two equal groups, group A and group B. Group A (the study group) consisted of 20 women, and group B (the control group) consisted of 20 women. All participants in both groups A and B performed breathing exercises in addition to conventional medical treatment. However, group A patients received kinesio taping at the lumbar region and anterior lower abdomen during the first stage of normal labor. Assessment of all participants in both groups A and B was carried out before and after the treatment program using visual analogue scale (VAS), cardiotocography, and by measuring the duration of the first stage of labor using a stopwatch. Results There was a nonsignificant difference between group A and group B in pain intensity using VAS in the first stage of labor at the first reading (cervical dilatation: 3–4 cm). However, there was a highly significant difference between group A and group B in the pain intensity using VAS in the first stage of labor at the second reading (cervical dilatation: 7–8 cm), favoring group A. Furthermore, there was a highly significant difference between group A and group B in the duration of the first stage of labor, favoring group A. Conclusion These results suggest that kinesio taping combined with breathing exercise is an effective method in reducing labor pain and shortening the duration of the first stage of labor.
  703 122 1
Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of Kinovea software for measurement of shoulder range of motion
Reham M Abd Elrahim, Eman A Embaby, Mohamed F Ali, Ragia M Kamel
July-December 2016, 21(2):80-87
DOI:10.4103/1110-6611.196778  
Background Goniometry is a tool used frequently for measuring and documenting range of motion (ROM) during a physical therapy examination. With modern innovations in technology, new methods other than the universal goniometer have been applied. Kinovea software is a recent video-based method that uses a virtual goniometer to obtain values for the ROM of joints. However, the software’s reliability in measuring shoulder joint ROM has not been studied. Purpose This study was conducted to investigate the inter-rater and intrarater reliability of Kinovea software for measuring shoulder joint ROM in healthy individuals. Materials and methods Shoulder joint ROM was measured in 52 healthy individuals (mean±SD age was 26.7±4.2 years) using Kinovea photographic measurements by three trained raters. Intrarater reliability was examined by a single rater within the same day. Shoulder flexion, abduction, and external and internal rotation ROM were measured with the patient in supine position. Results The inter-rater reliability ranged from an intraclass correlation coefficient value of 0.95 to 0.98, whereas the intrarater reliability ranged from an intraclass correlation coefficient value of 0.98 to 0.99. Conclusion This study showed highly reliable shoulder joint ROM measurements in healthy adults using the Kinovea software.
  657 134 -
Efficacy of cryoflow therapy in induced muscle soreness: a randomized trial
Salah Eldin B Elsayed, Neveen A Abdel Raoof, Nagwa S Abdallah
July-December 2015, 20(2):137-145
DOI:10.4103/1110-6611.174692  
Background An individual experiencing delayed-onset muscle soreness notices pain and aching within the affected muscles, decreased range of motion, and loss in muscle strength beginning 12-24 h after exercise, peaking between 48 and 72 h, and subsiding within 5-7 days after exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of locally applied cryoflow therapy on pain and function in induced muscle soreness of nondominant elbow flexors. Participants and methods Sixty healthy individuals participated in this study. They were divided randomly into two groups, 30 in each group. Pre-exercise measures were recorded for pressure pain threshold using a pressure algometer and level of limitation using Patient-Rated Elbow Evaluation. Participants performed free-weight curl exercises until fatigue using a 10-lb dumbbell at a tempo of 1 s for the concentric phase and 3 s for the eccentric phase to induce muscle soreness. Group A underwent cryoflow therapy administered immediately after exercise using a ShockMaster ICE-CT cryotherapy device at 12°C for 10 min once a day for 4 days. Group B underwent cold treatment using a flexible gel pack for 10 min once a day for 4 days. Dependent variables were assessed at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after exercise. Results Statistically significant differences were found between both groups for pain using pressure threshold and pain level of the Patient-Rated Elbow Evaluation scale at 48 and 72 h (P = 0.01, 0.002, and 0.0006, 0.0001, respectively); for the functional scale, statistically significant differences were found only at 72 h (P = 0.0001). Conclusion Cryoflow therapy was superior in overcoming delayed-onset muscle soreness than the use of a cryogel pack in case of induced muscle soreness.
  652 116 -
Effect of induced fatigue on dynamic postural balance in healthy young adults
Enas E Abutaleb, Assmaa H Mohamed
July-December 2015, 20(2):161-167
DOI:10.4103/1110-6611.174699  
Background Fatigue may impair the proprioceptive and kinesthetic properties of joints and has been shown to have a negative effect on neuromuscular control, thus increasing the risk for injury. Purpose This study aimed to determine the effect of induced whole-body fatigue on dynamic balance control in healthy young adults. Participants and methods Thirty healthy young participants of both sexes were included in this study; their ages ranged between 18 and 22 years. All of the participants were tested on the Biodex Stability System (BSS) at a stability level 4, subjected to induced fatigue on a treadmill, and then retested directly on the BSS again to evaluate dynamic postural balance. Results There was a significant decrease in the overall stability index, anteroposterior stability index, and mediolateral stability index of dynamic balance at stability level 4 of BSS in healthy young adults as P-values were 0.0001, 0.0001, and 0.0001, respectively. Conclusion and implication It was concluded that induced whole-body fatigue decreased the dynamic postural balance (overall stability index, anteroposterior stability index, and mediolateral stability index) in healthy young adults. This implies that muscles of a fatigued individual are at increased risk for musculoskeletal injury, and steps should be taken during conditioning and rehabilitation programs to prevent muscle fatigue through balance training and endurance exercises to avoid disturbed balance related to fatigue among young healthy adults.
  618 96 -
Effect of sex and neck positions on hand grip strength in healthy normal adults: a cross-sectional, observational study
Doaa I Amin, Moath Z Hawari, Hamada E.S Hassan, Haytham M Elhafez
January-June 2016, 21(1):42-47
DOI:10.4103/1110-6611.188028  
Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of sex and neck positions on hand grip strength in healthy normal adults. Materials and methods One hundred healthy adults of both sexes participated in this study. They were recruited from the students of the faculty of physical Therapy. Their ages ranged between 17 and 25 years. They were assigned to two equal groups according to their sex. Hand grip strength was measured in several neck positions. Grip strength was measured by using the Jamar handheld dynamometer, and the neck range of motion was measured by using the cervical range of motion. Results Among females, there was a significant difference between the hand grip strength in neutral position and in other neck positions (P=0.036). Among males, there was a significant difference between the hand grip strength in the neutral position and in other neck positions. Within neck positions, there was a significant difference (P<0.001). In addition, there was a significant difference in the hand grip strength in various neck positions between the female and male groups (P<0.001). Conclusion Hand grip strength was affected by changing the neck positions in both sexes and the maximum grip strength measurement was in the neutral position of the neck.
  399 73 -
Assessment of lumbar proprioception in participants with functional ankle instability: a cross-sectional study
Olfat Ibrahim Ali, Sahar Abdallah Alasar
July-December 2016, 21(2):74-79
DOI:10.4103/1110-6611.196780  
Background Functional ankle instability (FAI) represents 40–75% of residual disability after acute lateral ankle sprain. FAI has been associated with impaired muscle strength and postural and neuromuscular control. Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the association between FAI and lumbar proprioception. Patients and methods Thirty individuals of both sexes (17 female and 13 male) were selected. The FAI group included 15 participants (nine female and six male) and the control group included 15 normal individuals (eight female and seven male). Lumbar proprioception was assessed using the Biodex system 3 pro isokinetic dynamometer. Results There was a significant increase in repositioning error in the FAI group compared with the control group (P<0.001). Conclusion There was an association between FAI and an increase in lumbar reposition error compared with healthy individuals. This effect should be considered in the rehabilitation protocol of patients with FAI.
  370 86 -
Effect of trunk belt on function in children with diplegia
Hend A Wahsh, Kamal E Shoukry, Nanees E Mohamed
July-December 2016, 21(2):68-73
DOI:10.4103/1110-6611.196777  
Background and purpose Trunk control can offer many solutions for posture and movement. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of using modified trunk belt on sitting and standing in diplegic children. Patients and methods Thirty diplegic cerebral palsy children from both sexes participated. Their ages ranged from 3 to 6 years. They were divided randomly into two groups: control and study. The control group received a designed physical therapy program, and the study group received a designed physical therapy program in addition to proprioceptive training using a modified trunk belt. The sitting and standing domains were evaluated using the Gross Motor Function Measure for both groups before and after 3 successive months of treatment. Results The Wilcoxon test revealed that the gross motor function of children from both groups improved significantly after 3 months of treatment in both the sitting and standing domains. The Mann–Whitney test revealed that children in the study group showed a significantly greater improvement in both domains compared with the control group. Conclusion Proprioceptive training using trunk belt with physical therapy program could be used as an effective method for improving gross motor function of both sitting and standing in children with diplegia.
  329 96 -
High-intensity circuit weight training versus aerobic training in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Hany F Elsisi, Yasser M Aneis
July-December 2015, 20(2):181-192
DOI:10.4103/1110-6611.174717  
Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most common causes of liver disease worldwide and has been recognized as a major health burden. To date, no evidence-based therapy has proven to be effective for NAFLD, except for exercise and dietary interventions. The unsuitability of weight-oriented aerobic training for obese people with NAFLD because of the difficulty in maintaining weight loss necessitates the development of alternative strategies such as resistance training. Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity circuit weight training (CWT) compared with aerobic training in NAFLD patients. Materials and methods A randomized controlled trial enrolling 32 NAFLD patients of both sexes (15 men and 17 women) with ages ranging from 30 to 55 years without secondary liver disease (e.g. without hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, or alcohol consumption) was conducted. Patients were randomly allocated either to CWT or to aerobic exercise training, three times weekly, for 3 months. Anthropometrics, lipid profile, liver enzymes, and liver steatosis were assessed. Steatosis was quantified with the hepatorenal-ultrasound index (HRI) representing the ratio between the brightness level of the liver and the right kidney. Results All baseline characteristics were similar for the two treatment groups with respect to demographics, anthropometrics, lipid profile, liver enzymes, and liver steatosis on imaging. HRI score was significantly reduced in the CWT group as compared with the aerobic exercise training group (−0.38 ± 0.37 vs. −0.17 ± 0.28, P = 0.017), representing an 18 versus 8.54% relative reduction from baseline in the two groups, respectively. CWT also improved body composition, most importantly waist circumference, which was positively correlated with the change in HRI (r = 0.645 and P = 0.009). Conclusion This randomized controlled trial demonstrated a significant reduction in steatosis, as assessed by HRI, after 3 months of CWT accompanied by favorable anthropometric, lipid profile, and liver enzyme changes. CWT may serve as a complement to the treatment of NAFLD.
  347 73 -
Effect of using visual cognitive task on gait in children with spastic diplegia
Zeinb A Hussein
July-December 2015, 20(2):176-180
DOI:10.4103/1110-6611.174716  
Background Cognitive processing plays an important role in motor performance; thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of concurrent use of visual cognitive task and gait training task on gait in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. Participants and methods Fifteen spastic diplgic cerebral palsied children selected from out patient clinic Faculty of Physical Therapy Cairo University (nine boys and six girls) participated in this study. Children with a mean age of 8.15 ± 1.21 years, with a degree of spasticity 2 according to the modified Ashworth scale, with level II according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System, and having a trunk lurching pattern during gait were selected. They received the physical therapy program for an hour and visual cognitive task during gait training for another hour per day. The treatment program was conducted three times per week for 3 successive months. The lateral trunk lurching and gait parameters (spatial and temporal) were assessed, before and after treatments with the proreflex system. Results The results revealed a significant decrease in lateral trunk lurching angle before and after treatment (P < 0.001), a significant decrease in gait speed and cadence, and a significant increase in stride length and time of double limb support before and after treatment (P < 0.001). Conclusion The concurrent use of visual cognitive task during gait training in conjunction with physical program improves the stability of trunk and measured gait parameters for children with diplegic cerebral palsy
  313 50 -
Comparison between the effects of aerobic and resistive training on immunoglobulins in obese women
Gihan S Mohamed, Mona M Taha
January-June 2016, 21(1):11-16
DOI:10.4103/1110-6611.188023  
Background and purpose Obesity has adverse consequences on the immune system, causing immunosuppression, and thus increasing the incidence of infections and certain types of cancer in obese individuals. The aim of this study was to compare changes in selected immune system responses after moderate aerobic and resistive training in obese women. Methods In total, 40 obese women (age: 35–45 years) were selected and divided into two equal groups: the aerobic training group (A), in which women received moderate-intensity aerobic training; and the resistive training group (B), in which women received moderate-intensity resistive training. Blood sampling was carried out for immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG in the pretest and after the 12th week of training. Results There was a significant increase in IgM and IgG in response to aerobic training, whereas no significant changes occurred in the resistive training group. There were significant differences in IgM and IgG between the two groups after training in favor of the aerobic training group (A). Conclusion Regular moderate aerobic training seems to improve immunity compared with resisted training in obese women.
  280 71 -
Assessment and documentation among physical therapists in Egypt
Aliaa Rehan Youssef, Mohammed Gumaa Bakry
January-June 2016, 21(1):32-41
DOI:10.4103/1110-6611.188024  
Background Standardized assessment is a legal and ethical professional requirement in clinical decision-making. Clinical guidelines emphasize the importance of clinical assessment and documentation to foster the implementation of evidence-based management and reduce unnecessary therapeutic costs. In developing countries like Egypt, healthcare may be suboptimal and is challenged by low budget and malpractices. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between assessment and documentation of physical therapy and Egyptian physical therapists’ demographics. In addition, therapists’ attitude toward the use of electronic medical record was also evaluated. Materials and methods An online and a paper-based survey was developed and tested for linguistic clarity before it was administrated to physical therapists. Results A total of 389 questionnaires were used for statistical analyses. The majority of the respondents (84.1%) always or often assessed their patients; however, almost half of them (44.7%) rarely or never used the assessment tools. Seventy-eight percent of the respondents always or often documented their examination findings. Electronic medical records were rarely or never used by 42.7% of the respondents, although almost all of them expressed their willingness to use them if they were available for free. More experienced male therapists with higher academic degrees were significantly but weakly associated with more frequent patient assessment (P < 0.05). Furthermore, male junior therapists used assessment tools more frequently (P < 0.05). None of the demographic variables was associated with documentation (P > 0.05). For practice type, respondents worked at various clinical settings. No association between the type of practice and assessment or documentation was found (P > 0.05). Conclusion The majority of Egyptian physical therapists assess patients informally without the use of standard tools. Although patients’ findings are documented, the use of electronic meical records is rare.
  286 63 -
Effect of whole-body vibration on motor neuron excitability in healthy young men
Salah Eldin B Elsayed, Neveen A Abdel Raoof, Omnia M Elsayed
January-June 2016, 21(1):48-55
DOI:10.4103/1110-6611.188027  
Background Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been increasingly used for performance enhancement as well as for treatment of some conditions. There is much focus on the study of muscular performance accompanied by WBVs; however, little is known about its effect on motor units – whether it has excitatory or inhibitory effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a single bout of WBV on motor neuron excitability in healthy individuals immediately and 30 min after application. Participants and methods Sixty healthy men participated in this study; their ages ranged between 18 and 25 years. They were randomly divided into two equal groups – the study group and the control group – each containing 30 men who were selected by drawing ballots from sealed envelopes. The experimental group received WBV with a frequency of 50–60 Hz and amplitude of 0–10 mm for 1 min, with a 1 min rest period between each vibration set, which was repeated five times. The control group stood on the WBV device for the same duration while it was off. Hoffman reflex amplitude and H/M ratio were measured from the soleus muscle (posterior tibial nerve) before and 0 and 30 min after application in both groups using surface electromyography. Results There was significant decrease in Hoffman reflex amplitude at 0 and 30 min in the study group compared with the control group (P = 0.002 and 0.01, respectively). Moreover, there was significant decrease in H/M ratio at 0 and 30 min in the study group compared with the control group (P = 0.0001 and 0.03, respectively). Conclusion WBV decreases motor neuron excitability and thus may have therapeutic implications for people with central nervous system disorders, in whom spasticity is a major manifestation.
  271 58 -
Comparison of stair walking mechanics between adult males and females
Ahmed Farrag
July-December 2016, 21(2):88-93
DOI:10.4103/1110-6611.196781  
Background Stair negotiation is a daily functional activity that poses greater mechanical burden as compared with level walking. Few studies have investigated the biomechanical demands of stair walking tasks. However, sex-based biomechanical differences of such tasks, in terms of joint movement and muscle activity, have not been previously reported. Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate sex-based differences in lower extremity joint kinematics and muscular electromyography (EMG) in healthy adults during stair ascent and descent. Materials and methods A total of 20 participants (10 males and 10 females), with mean±SD age of 21.7±2.7 years, ascended and descended a two-sided staircase. Sagittal movements of the hip, knee, and ankle joints were measured using a Qualisys motion analysis system. Peak amplitude of surface EMG activity for gluteus medius, rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis, and soleus muscles was collected using a Biopack EMG system. Each participant performed three repetitions, and an average was calculated for analysis. Results Female participants demonstrated significantly higher hip and knee angles (P=0.01) during stair ascent and higher hip angles and ankle dorsiflexion (P=0.01) during stair descent than male participants. Female participants also exerted higher normalized muscular activity than male participants for RF, vastus lateralis, and soleus muscles during ascent. However, only RF muscle had significantly higher readings for female participants during stair descent. Conclusion Female participants perform stair negotiation using greater angular excursion and muscle activation than male participants. This could impose greater mechanical burden on lower extremity structures and, consequently, increase energy consumption. Therefore, sex-based differences should be considered when planning a stair-negotiation rehabilitation program.
  244 60 -
CASE REPORT
Early strength training using theraband exercises for phase-1 cardiac rehabilitation in a patient with a fractured femur: a case report
Rashida Y Bookwala, Abraham S Babu, Arun G Maiya, Tom Devasia, Barry A Franklin
July-December 2016, 21(2):94-96
DOI:10.4103/1110-6611.196779  
The effectiveness of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) following an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is well established. However, ACS complicated by an orthopedic limitation, poses greater challenges to early mobilization. Thus, there is a need for an alternative rehabilitation approach to improving exercise capacity and in preventing and reducing associated complications during convalescence. This case report highlights the value and utility of using low level resistance exercises to the upper limb with theraband exercise during an inpatient or phase-1 CR program. A low intensity theraband regimen for the upper limb was administered based on the number of repetitions performed to fatigue. The functional improvements observed and the ability of the patient to tolerate the therapy suggests a potential role for theraband exercises in phase-1 CR in ACS patients with selected orthopedic limitations.
  234 52 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Sex differences of knee joint repositioning accuracy in healthy adolescents
Rania N Karkousha
January-June 2016, 21(1):56-60
DOI:10.4103/1110-6611.188029  
Introduction Sex differences in the knee joint have long been known and impaired proprioceptive accuracy is an important risk factor that could be associated with knee joint injury. This study was conducted to compare the accuracy of knee repositioning between healthy male and female adolescents. Participants and methods A total of 64 healthy adolescents (32 males, 32 females) aging from 15 to 18 years participated in this study. Active angle repositioning test was used to assess the proprioceptive accuracy of the right knee joint at 45° knee flexion by using a Biodex system 3 pro-isokinetic dynamometer. Results The statistical analysis revealed that the repositioning accuracy of the knee joint was significantly lower in female participants than in males, as the mean values of repositioning errors were 3.54 ± 1.20 for males and 4.76 ± 1.29 for females (P < 0.05). Conclusion Sex-based difference in the accuracy of knee joint proprioception may imply that knee proprioceptive sensitivity might potentially contribute to the high incidence of knee injury in females compared with males, particularly during adolescence.
  224 58 -
Effect of pulsed electromagnetic therapy versus low-level laser therapy on bone mineral density in the elderly with primary osteoporosis: a randomized, controlled trial
Ashraf A.M. Abdelaal, Mona M Taha, Doaa I Amin, Amira H Draz
January-June 2017, 22(1):34-39
DOI:10.4103/bfpt.bfpt_58_16  
Background Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the elderly worldwide. Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the effect of low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (LFPEMFT) versus low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on bone mineral density (BMD) in osteoporotic elderly. Patients and methods A total of 60 participants with primary osteoporosis, aged 55–65 years, were randomly allocated into three groups: the LFPEMFT group (group I; n=20), the LLLT group (group II; n=20), and the control group (group III; n=20). Each treatment regimen was applied for 30 min, three times weekly for 3 months on the lumbar region. BMD was evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results There were significant increases in BMD in groups I and II, whereas there was a nonsignificant increase in group III (P<0.001, 0.001, and 0.14 for groups I, II, and III, respectively). Between groups, there were significant differences in BMD but in favor of group I (P<0.001). The mean values and percentages of change in BMD were −1.94±0.76 and 39.48%, −2.63±0.49 and 16.79%, and −3.19±0.54 and 0.79% in groups I, II, and III, respectively. Conclusion LFPEMFT and LLLT are useful therapeutic procedures to increase BMD in osteoporotic elderly. Furthermore, LFPEMFT is more effective than LLLT in increasing BMD in the elderly with primary osteoporosis.
  186 41 -
Efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic wave versus low-level laser therapy in treatment of primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized trial
Eman Abd El Fatah Mohamed
January-June 2017, 22(1):53-58
DOI:10.4103/bfpt.bfpt_69_16  
Background Primary dysmenorrhea is defined as pain during menstruation, and it affects participation in daily activities. Objective This study was conducted to compare and add evidence between the effect of pulsed electromagnetic wave and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Participants and methods A total of 50 female students complained of primary dysmenorrhea, with age ranging from 16 to 22 years and BMI from 18.5 to 25 kg/m2. They were divided randomly into two equal groups − group A comprised 25 female students who received Pulsed electromagnetic field, and group B comprised 25 female students who received LLLT. Samples of blood were taken before and after treatment to detect the level of prostaglandins in blood. Present pain intensity scale (Ppi) is used for the assessment of pain before and after treatment. Results There was a significant reduction (P<0.05), in prostaglandin level in both groups post-treatment; when comparing between groups there was no statistical significant difference (P>0.05), whereas there was a clinical difference in favor of group A. In addition, there was a statistically significant reduction (P=0.0001) post-treatment in Ppi scale in both groups. When comparing between both groups, there was a significant reduction (P=0.0001), in Ppi and this significant reduction was in favor of group A. Conclusion The results of this study suggested that both pulsed electromagnetic waves and LLLT are effective methods in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea, with better effects of pulsed electromagnetic waves than LLLT.
  177 33 -
Acu-tens improves lung function in patients with chronic bronchial asthma: a randomized placebo-controlled trial
Faten M Elnozhe, Nezar Rifaat
January-June 2017, 22(1):1-8
DOI:10.4103/1110-6611.209873  
Context Bronchial asthma greatly affects patient’s quality of life. Application of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on acupuncture is a promising noninvasive modality that may assist in controlling dyspnoea and improving lung function in those patients. Aims This study investigated the effect of Acu-TENS on lung function [forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC)] and the modified medical research council dyspnoea scale. Settings and design This study was conducted as a double-blind randomized controlled trial among 40 male patients diagnosed with moderate chronic bronchial asthma selected from Elmenia University Hospitals. Patients and methods Their ages ranged from 35 to 45 years with a mean value of 41.45±2.74 years. They were assigned randomly to two equal groups: the experimental (Acu-TENS) group, which received 45 min of Acu-TENS on bilateral Dingchuan acupoints three sessions/week for 4 weeks, and the control (placebo-TENS) group, which received 45 min of placebo-TENS 3 sessions/week for 4 weeks. Lung function was measured as FEV1 and FVC using a portable spirometer. Dyspnoea was measured using the modified medical research council dyspnoea scale. Assessment was carried out before and after 1 month of treatment. Results The results revealed that after treatment there was a significant improvement in FEV1, which increased by 15.08%, and FVC, which increased by 13.18%, in favour of the Acu-TENS group when compared with the control group (P=0.037 and 0.016 for FEV1 and FVC, respectively). However, there was no significant difference in the modified medical research council dyspnoea scale between the Acu-TENS group and the placebo-TENS group after treatment (P=0.343). Conclusion It was concluded that Acu-TENS on bilateral Ding Chuan acupoints for 4 weeks is an effective approach for improving lung function (FEV1 and FVC).
  172 38 -