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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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July-December 2017
Volume 22 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 67-123

Online since Tuesday, March 6, 2018

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Postnatal rehabilitation of pelvic floor muscles using aerobic and Kegel exercises Highly accessed article p. 67
Engy M El Nahas, Marwa A Mohamed, Hesham M Kamal
DOI:10.4103/bfpt.bfpt_64_16  
Background Weakness of pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) is the most important consequence of childbirth and is determined by specific alterations in its structure and physiological function. Objective This study was conducted to determine and add evidence on the effect of aerobic exercises and biofeedback-assisted Kegel exercises on PFMs strength and thickness in postnatal women. Participants and methods A total of 50 primiparous women experiencing mild-degree stress urinary incontinence 3 months postnatally participated in this study; their age ranged from 20 to 30 years. They were divided into two equal groups. Study group (group A) (aerobic+Kegel exercises) consisted of 25 primiparous women who performed aerobic exercise in addition to biofeedback-assisted Kegel exercises, and the control group (group B) (Kegel exercise) consisted of 25 primiparous women who performed only biofeedback-assisted Kegel exercises. Assessment of the PFMs’ strength was performed by using the perineometer, whereas assessment of the PFMs’ thickness was performed by using perineal ultrasound at relaxation and during contraction. Results The results of this study revealed a highly statistical significant increase in the PFMs’ strength, as the P was less than 0.001, and a statistical significant increase in the PFMs’ thickness both at relaxation and during contraction, as the P was less than 0.05, in both groups (groups A and B) after treatment, in favor of group (group A). Conclusion It could be concluded that adding aerobic exercise to biofeedback-assisted Kegel exercises would improve PFMs’ strength and thickness than biofeedback-assisted Kegel exercises only.
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Aerobic exercises versus low-caloric diet for mild fatty liver patients with central obesity p. 74
Hany F.E.M Elsisi, Fatma M.M Abdeen Sallama, Awny F Rahmy, Mohammad A Sweilam
DOI:10.4103/bfpt.bfpt_68_16  
Background and aims Exercise and weight loss are the first-line therapy for patients with mild fatty liver with central obesity. We aimed to (i) summarize a moderate aerobic exercise program and low-caloric diet program and (ii) to compare the effect of moderate aerobic exercise program versus low-caloric diet program on liver biochemistry. The purpose of this study was to determine the response of liver enzymes to aerobic exercise versus low-caloric diet in mild fatty liver patients with central obesity. Patients and methods The study was carried out on 40 patients with mild fatty liver, central obesity, and elevated liver enzymes. Their ages ranged between 30 and 45 years; the patients were assigned to two groups equal in number. Group 1 received a program of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on electronic treadmill (60–70% of maximum heart rate) for 50 min three times a week for 8 weeks. Group 2 followed a program of low-caloric diet for 8 weeks. Liver enzymes, BMI, waist circumference, and fat content were measured for both groups before and after program. Results The results of this study showed that there were no significant (P>0.05) differences between the findings of both groups. However, there were significant (P<0.05) decreases in all outcome measures after treatment compared with that before treatment in both groups except for the BMI. Conclusion Moderate intensity aerobic exercise and low-caloric diet are effective in decreasing liver enzymes, waist circumference, and fat content in patients with mild fatty liver.
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Correlation between smoking, serum serotonin level, and peripheral fatigue of back extensors: cross-sectional study p. 83
Ghada I Mohamed, Yasser R Lasheen
DOI:10.4103/bfpt.bfpt_3_17  
Background Smoking is a negative behavior pattern that is harmful to our life .When the spinal muscles are fatigued, their capacity to create a quick extensor movement is compromised, and serotonin is the master regulating hormone in the body that controls distinctive body works for instance. Purpose This study was conducted to investigate the relation of serum cotinine level (the metabolite of nicotine), serum serotonin level, and peripheral fatigue of back extensors. Patients and methods A total of 60 (40 smokers and 20 nonactive smokers) normal men were assigned into three groups: 20 nonsmokers (control group), 20 moderate smokers, and 20 heavy smokers. Blood samples were taken from all patients to analyze cotinine and serotonin levels by laboratory tests. Isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure fatigue susceptibility by calculating the fatigue index. Results There was a statistically significant correlation among serum cotinine level, fatigue index, and serum serotonin level in heavy smokers (P<0.05) and in moderate smokers (P<0.05). In addition, there was a significant correlation between serum cotinine and serotonin levels in the nonsmoker group (P<0.05). Conclusion An increase in the serum cotinine level increases the fatigability of back extensors in smokers. Further, cotinine has an inverse relationship with serum serotonin level in smokers and nonsmokers. In addition, serum serotonin level had an inverse relation with peripheral fatigue of back extensors in smokers.
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Comparative study of circuit resistance training and aerobic training on glycemic control of gestational diabetes mellitus p. 89
Ghada E El Refaye, Gihan F Abdel Aziz
DOI:10.4103/bfpt.bfpt_46_16  
Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a standout among the most well-known medical complications of pregnancy. The occurrence of GDM has multiplied in the most recent 6–8 years and is associated with the obesity epidemic. Objective To compare the effect of circuit resistance training (CRT) versus aerobic training (AT) on glycemic control in women with GDM. Participants and methods A total of 50 pregnant women with a diagnosis of GDM were randomly assigned to a CRT group or an AT group. Both the groups trained for 40 min, three times per week for 36 sessions, starting at 20–24 weeks gestation (second trimester) until the end of 37 weeks gestation. The fasting and 2-h postprandial plasma glucose levels were assessed in all the participants before and after the treatment program. Results The results revealed a significant decrease in both fasting and 2-h postprandial plasma glucose levels in both the groups after the training program (CRT group, P<0.0001 and AT group, P<0.01). However, the participants in the CRT group exhibited a greater decrease in both fasting and 2-h postprandial plasma glucose levels, with the mean difference between both groups being −15.05 and −46.75 mg/dl, respectively, favoring the CRT group, (P<0.0001). Conclusion These results suggest that the CRT was more effective than AT in improving glycemic control among gestational diabetic women.
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Prevalence of factors leading to obesity among school children (aged 15–18 years) in Giza governorate, Egypt p. 96
Ibrahim Mohamed Abdelhakim, Faten Hassan Abd El Aziem, Hoda Abd El Aziem El Talawy
DOI:10.4103/1110-6611.226689  
Objective The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity and the factors leading to it among adolescents in Giza governorate. Participants and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1021 adolescents (between 15 and 18 years of age) of both sexes. They were recruited from different schools of Giza governorate, Egypt, through convenience sampling. The ‘Obesity Questionnaire Survey Sheet’ was administered to the selected students and they were assessed for height, weight, and body composition using InBody120. The frequencies and percentages were reported for categorical variables. Results The results revealed that 58% of the adolescents had normal BMI, whereas 36.5% were overweight and obese. It is also interesting to find out that 78.1% had high percent body fat and 69.5% had peripheral obesity. Furthermore, 77.9% of students had trunk obesity. As regards fast food consumption, 79% of adolescents consumed it occasionally. It is also interesting that 40.4% of participants had positive family history. In addition, 54.9% of students never participated in any physical activity. Conclusion Our study concluded that the major risk factor for obesity in 15–18-year-old adolescents is lack of physical activity. However, consumption of fast food is also increasing in this age group. Furthermore, genetic predisposition cannot be ignored.
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Use of the quality function deployment to transfer the physical therapy students’ perception regarding effective lecture into operational requirements p. 105
Salwa B El-Sobkey
DOI:10.4103/bfpt.bfpt_8_17  
Objective Quality is the most important factor of competition worldwide. Quality of education means meeting or exceeding costumers’ expectations from education. Aim This study aimed to use the quality function deployment (QFD) to transfer the physical therapy students’ perception regarding effective lecture into operational requirements. The study used the technique of Bernal L (2009) to apply the QFD to transfer the Physical Therapy students’ voice regarding effective lecture into operational requirements. Results showed that the students perceived the following items as the most important items; “Teacher communicates with the students through a bridge of trust”, “Teacher gets attention to all students, disseminates the care to all students, provides them with positive energy by encouraging them and is not giving too many orders to the students as orders have negative impact on the students’’, “Teacher provides the students with feedback during and after the lecture” and “Active teacher”. The operational requirement of “Effective internal and external quality audit” got the first priorities rank. Conclusion The study concluded that students’ perspective is important source of information regarding the effectiveness of educational activities including lectures. The implementation of the operational requirements would result in achieving the effective lectures and satisfying the students.
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Impact of different heel heights on spinal posture and muscle activity in young adult women p. 118
Walaa H Elsayed, Asma A Alhufair, Seham J Alghamdi
DOI:10.4103/bfpt.bfpt_9_17  
Context High-heeled shoes are frequently used by women. Whether wearing high-heeled shoes can alter the alignment and muscle activity of the spine is still a debatable issue among many clinicians. Aims The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of different heel heights on the spinal posture and muscle activity in adult women, who do not habitually wear high-heeled shoes. Materials and methods A repeated measures design was implemented in this work. A total of 17 healthy women participated in this study. Before collecting data, each participant had a 10-min familiarization period for each heel height. Spinal alignment parameters, sagittal angles, and the amplitude of lumbar erector spinae electromyography were recorded while standing, wearing shoes of different heel heights (0, 6, and 10 cm). Descriptive statistics including mean and SD was applied for dependent variables and participant demographics. Repeated measures analysis of variance was implemented to detect the differences in dependent measures among three heel conditions. Results Sagittal spine angles and alignment parameters were not impacted by wearing high-heeled shoes. Lumbar erector spinae electromyography amplitudes increased with higher heels. However, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion Short-term use of high-heeled shoes does not induce changes in spine shape or lumbar spine muscular activation in nonhabitual wearers. Thus, further investigation of the long-term impact is required. The current findings may be important to consider by physiotherapists managing spinal postural dysfunctions.
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